Published Sunday , on 2 February 2020, 18:47:35 by Christophe Hitayezu

Igihugu cy’u Buhinde cyakoze ibishoboka byose mu kurwanya umwanda w’abantu batakozwaga gukoresha ubwiherero bagahitamo kunyanyagiza umwanda ku gasozi. Imibare ya Banki y’Isi igaragaza ko mu mwaka wa 2014, 33.8% by’abahinde bitumagaa ku gasozi. Ni ibintu ubusanzwe abahinde bafataga nk’ibisanzwe, ku buryo mu bantu icumi bitumaga ku gasozi ku Isi, batandatu bari abahinde, bituma iki gihugu gishyirwa ku isonga ku Isi ku kibazo cy’umwanda.

Mu myaka itanu ishize, ubwo Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Buhinde, Narendra Modi yatangizaga ubukangurambaga bwiswe Swachh Bharat Mission (u Buhinde busukuye), yiyemeje ko tariki 2 Ukwakira 2019 nta muhinde uzaba ukituma ahatari mu bwiherero. Ibi byaje kugerwaho kuko mu ijambo rye ubwo muri iki gihugu hizihizwaga isabukuru y’imyaka 150 Mahatma Gandhi amaze avutse, yatangaje ku mugaragaro ko iyi ngeso yacitse burundu.

Imbere y’abitabiriye ibi birori byabereye mu mujyi wa Ahmedabad, Modi yagize ati "Mu mezi 60, abaturage miliyoni 600 bagize ubwiherero mu ngo zabo. Ubwiherero busaga miliyoni 110 bwarubatswe, Isi itangajwe no kubyumva”.

Mbere y’ubu bukangurambaga, 39% by’ingo nibo gusa bari bafite ubwiherero. Ubushakashatsi bwatewe inkunga na Banki y’Isi bwasojwe muri Gashyantare 2019, bwagaragaje ko abantu 10% mu byaro ari bo gusa bari basigaye bituma hanze. Gusa ubu Leta yemeza ko 100% by’abaturage bose bafite ubwiherero.

Umunyamabanga wungirije mu Ishami ry’Amazi n’isukura, muri Minisiteri y’Amazi n’Ingufu, Arun Baroka, avuga ko muri ubu bukangurambaga ikintu cyari kigoye ari uguhindura imyumvire y’abaturage.

Yagize ati “Imbogamizi ikomeye kwari uguhindura imyumvire, byadusabye gutekereza uburyo bwose bushoboka bwo gutambutsamo ubutumwa. Indi mbogamizi ni ingano y’igihugu, u Buhinde ni igihugu kinini cyane. Ntibyoroshye gukurikirana ingo zisaga miliyoni 18 zifite imico itandukanye, indimi ndetse n’akamenyero bitandukanye. Hari ubwo byanahuzwaga n’imyemerere, wasangaga abantu bajya kwituma ku nkombe z’imigezi, ngo bakarabe mu mazi y’umugezi, n’ubwo hari abafata umugezi nk’ahantu hatagatifu, ariko ntibibabuze kuyanduza”.

Arun yavuze ko habayeho guhuza ingufu kw’inzego zitandukanye kugirango ubukangurambaga bugere ku ntego, baba abaririmbyi, abakinnyi ba filimi n’abandi, bose bagize gahunda iyabo, atanga urugero rwa filimi yitwa “Toilet: EK Prem Katha” irimo inyigisho yafashije abahinde benshi guhindura imyumvire.

Avuga ko muri ubu bukangurambaga, hanatanzwe agahimbazamusyi ku rugo rubashije kubaka ubwiherero, mu cyiciro cya mbere hatanzwe Rs12,000 (hafi 155,000Frw) ku muryango, kandi bikaba bizanakomeza kuko Leta yashyize miliyari 12 z’amadolari ya Amerika mu kunganira no gushimira uwubatse ubwiherero.

Imibare ya OMS na UNICEF igaragaza ko ubu bukangurambaga bwagabanyije impfu zisaga 300,000 zifitanye isano n’umwanda, butuma buri rugo ruzigama Rs50,000 (asaga 643,000Frw) buri mwaka yatangwaga mu kwivuza indwara ziterwa n’umwanda. Kwanduza amazi yo munsi y’ubutaka asubira mu yo abaturage bakoresha nabyo byagabanutseho inshuro 12.70.

Akarere ka Churu kabaye intangarugero

Churu, akarere kangana na km² 13,858 gaherereye muri Leta ya Rajasthan, gatuwe n’abasaga miliyoni 2,2, kabaye aka mbere mu kugaragaza ko abaturage bose bafite kandi bakoresha ubwiherero.

Umuyobozi w’Umudugudu wungirije wa Baniyala wo muri Block ya Tara Nagar ho mu karere ka Churu, yagize ati “Muri Kamena 2012, abakuru b’imidugudu bose uko ari 29 barahamagajwe mu nama ku karere kuri iki kibazo, mu Ukwakira 2012, duhamagaza abaturage bose mu mudugudu biyemeza ko mu kwezi kumwe iki kibazo kizaba cyakemutse”.


Bumwe mu bwiherero bw’umuturage mu mudugudu wa Baniyala

Abwira itsinda n’abayamakuru b’abanyafurika barebaga urugendo rw’u Buhinde mu isukura, muri gahunda yateguwe n’Ikigo cy’Ubumenyi n’Ibidukikije cyo mu Buhinde (CSE-India), umuyobozi w’Akarere ka Churu, Sandesh Nayak, yavuze ko Churu yaje imbere mu kugera ku ntego yifashishije ubukangurambaga bwihariye bwiswe Chokho Churu, bivuze Churu isukuye

Avuga ko byose byagezweho kubera ubufatanye bw’inzego zose, abakozi ba Leta, itangazamakuru ndetse n’abaturage muri rusange.

Yagize ati “Twagize gahunda ya Chokho Chhuru yagenze neza, yibanze ku guhindura imyumvire y’abaturage binyuze mu nama na bo, n’ubundi buryo bwose twatekereje ko bwadufasha. Hatanzwe nkunganire ya Leta ariko ibyakozwe birusha agaciro ingano y’amafaranga yatanzwe”.

Mu kiganiro twagiranye na bamwe mu babyeyi bo mu mudugudu wa Baniyala, batubwiye ko banihurije hamwe mu matsinda mato y’abagore bane bane, bakajya basura urugo ku rundi bigisha bagenzi babo akamaro k’ubwiherero. Uwitwa Sulochana Jat yagize ati “Abantu bazindukaga mu cya kare bajya kwituma hanze, butaracya neza, ariko ubu ntabakizinduka iryo joro kuko bafite ubwiherero, ubu bagirayo igihe bashakiye".

Undi witwa Santosh Brey avuga ko n’amasazi yakundaga kuduma mu ngo akanakwirakwiza indwara batakiyabona, akanemeza ko indwara zishingiye ku mwanda zagabanutse.


Ababyeyi bo mu mudugudu wa Baniyala, usanga bitwikiriye hose no mu maso ndetse ntibakunda kuvuga imbere y’abagabo, kubera imyemerere

Umuyobozi w’Akarere ka Churu yavuze ko ubwiherere butari mu byo abaturage babonaga nk’ibyihutirwa, ikaba imwe mu mbogamizi ndetse hakiyongeraho n’ikibazo cy’amazi dore ko ari agace kegereye ubutayu.

Guhangana n’ikibazo cy’amazi

Biragoye kwemera ko isuku n’isukura byagerwaho igihe umuntu adafite amazi meza, aka gae kagira imvura nke ingana na mm 300 kandi ikagwa amezi abiri gusa mu mwaka (Nyakanga na Kanama), mu rwego rw’ubu bukangurambaga, iki nacyo cyatekerejweho bafashwa kubaka ibigega bifata ayo mazi y’imvura.

Mahendra Kumar, ni umuhanga mu bwubatsi muri aka gace, avuga ko umuturage wese yahawe na Leta nkunganire ya 90% we akiyishurira 10% mu kubaka ibigega bijyamo litiro 20,000 z’amazi y’imvuga kandi akaba ari ayo kunywa gusa. Avuga ko agaciro k’ikigega kimwe ari Rs 100,000 (asaga 1,286,000Frw).


Iki kigega gifata amazi y’imvura akigwa hejuru akamanukiramo kuko kiri munsi y’ubutaka, niyo banywa nta kundi kuyatunganya

Avuga ko mu ngo 500 zigize umudugudu wa Baniyala, ingo 201 zimaze gufashwa kubaka ibi bigega kandi kikaba ari igikorwa gikomeje.

Afurika yabikuraho isomo

Ikigo cy’Ubumenyi n’Ibidukikije gikorera mu Buhinde, mu mwaka wa 2018 cyagaragaje ko umuntu umwe muri bane muri miliyoni 892 bituma ku gasozi ku Isi, ari abo muri Afurika y’ubutayi bwa Sahara, hagati y’umwaka wa 2000 na 2015, hafi 18% y’ibihugu bw’Afuruka y’Iburengerazuba, 31% y’ibyo muri Afurika y’Iburasirazu, 25% y’ibyo mu majyepfo ya Afurika na 66% y’ibyo muri Afurika yo hagati, byagaragaje ko bidahagaze neza mu bijyanye no gukoresha ubwiherero.

Ibintu bibiri by’ingenzi byashyizwemo ingufu mu Buhinde, ni uguhindura imyumvire y’abaturage no kubaha ubushobozi mu buryo bw’amafaranga, nta mategeko yashyizweho cyangwa igitsure ahubwo hagendewe ku mahitamo n’ibitekerezi by’abaturage.

Mu bihugu bimwe bya Afurika nk’u Rwanda, usanga gahunda isaba ko abaturage bahindura imyumvire iba itegeko, utayubahirije mu gihe cyagenwe agacibwa amande cyangwa agafungwaho gato byo kumukangara, siko byagenze mu Buhinde kuko cyafashwe nk’ikibazo cy’ubuzima kurusha uko kiba icy’amategeko n’amabwiriza.

Kumva kimwe intego, inzego zose ndetse n’abaturage bakabigira ibintu ibyabo, ni iturufu ikomeye yatumye impinduka igaragara mu gihe gito muri kiriya gihugu gituwe n’abasaga miliyali 1,36 z’abaturage.

Ibihugu bya Afurika bikwiye gushyira ingufu mu mikoranire n’itangazamakuru, ibinyamakuru byose bikagira uruhare kandi bikarushimirwa. Muri kiriya gihugu, televisiyo zisaga 800 na Radio zisaga 230 zikorera mu bice bitandukanye byacyo, byafashije bikomeye kugeza ubutumwa kuri buri wese.

Aganira n’abanyamakuru umunani bari baturutse mu bihugu bya Nigeria, u Rwanda, Ghana, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia na Djibouti, Sunita Narain, umuyobozi wa CSE-India akaba n’umwanditsi mukuru wa Down to Earth, yibukije ko kugira ubwiherero ari byiza, ariko kandi ko bukenera amazi n’uburyo bwo gutunganya imyanda ibujyamo, agira ati “Bitabaye ibyo twava ku mugogoro w’ubuzima uterwa no kutagira ubwiherero, tukajya ku mugogoro w’ubuzima uterwa no kwanduzwa n’ibiburimo”.